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Nearly 4.5 lacs people constitute 80,000 families live within or close to Similipal & 50% of them earn a part or complete livelihood from Similipal by collecting small timber, fire wood & other local resources.

These caused loss of diversity alongwith problem of fire & "AKHANDA - SHIKAR" which considered one singular custom resulting killing of wild animals. The human population in core area has increased from 394 to 576 from 1981 to 1991 as per census in four villages.

The population increased from 8249 to 9697 from 1981 to 1991 as per census in 61 villages in the buffer zone.

The livestock population fluctuates seasonally during a year. A survey in August 1997 in four villages in the core area revealed following livestock population.

Sl. No. Name of the villages * Cows Buffaloes Goats Sheep
1 Kabatghai (17) 097 18 138  
2 Jamunagarh (08) 084 01 136 23
3 Jenabil (31) 197   188 01
4 Bakua (19) 051   078  

* The figures in bracket indicate the number of households to whom the cattle belongs.
As per a survey conducted during 1995, livestock population in buffer was found to be 7866. The population is steadily increasing.

The encroachment of Similipal has decreased considerably in the Tiger project network but the encroachment in the villages surrounded by forest still goes on.

Though grazing is strictly prohibited in core area but the grazing of cattle of four villages in the core area & villages just outside core area & buffer areas do take & place, it is reported.

Fires during March to June are common though it is confined to ground only. The main causes of fire are biotic, mainly by villagers, poachers.

The creation of fire line by burning of the meadows reduce fire hazard & the entire efforts are conducted by anti fire squad of forest department.

Year Area Affected
1994 - 95 221.011 Sq.Km
1995 - 96 170.4 Sq.Km
1996 - 97 103.9 Sq.Km